Publications within this research program


Warsen, R., Greve, C., Klijn, E.H., Koppenjan, J.F.M. (2019). How do professionals perceive the governance of public-private partnerships? Evidence from Canada, the Netherlands and Denmark. Public Administration (online first).  There are different ways to govern public-private partnership projects, but how do professionals involved in PPPs think about the governance of these partnerships? This study shows their diverging perspectives. It highlights the importance of early communication about these perspectives, to avoid friction and conflict in PPP-projects. Link: Governance perspectives in PPP-projects.

Koppenjan, J.F.M., Karré, P.M. & Termeer, C.J.A.M. (2019). Smart Hybridity: Potentials and Challanges of New Governance Arrangements. Eleven International Publishing: The Hague. In our current society, governments face complex societal issues that cannot be tackled through traditional governance arrangements. Therefore, governments increasingly come up with smart hybrid arrangements that transcend the boundaries of policy domains and jurisdictions, combine governance mechanisms (state, market, networks and self-governance), and foster new forms of collaboration. This book provides an overview of what smart hybridity entails and of its potentials and challenges. Link: Smart Hybridity

Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). (2019). Nieuwe slimme vormen van bestuur: Resultaten van het NWO-programma Smart Governance (2014-2019). Friday October 4th, 2019 the five research projects that take part in the NWO Smart Governance research programme gathered. Researchers and involved practitioners of the different projects exchanged results, experiences and ideas. This booklet gives an overview of the results of each of the projects, including our project ‘Governance for Smartening Public-Private Partnerships’. PDF version (only in Dutch): Nieuwe slimme vormen van bestuur

Van Buuren, M.W., Grotenbreg, S., Duijn, M & Roovers, G. (2019). Towards integrated water and energy works in the Netherlands: Four asset management strategies for public value creation with public water works. International Journal of Water Governance, 7, 1-20. Public water works are increasingly made available by public authorities for private initiatives, for example for the generation of renewable energy. In doing this, authorities can apply different so-called asset management strategies, in this article we distinguish four of these strategies. One of the findings is that an open and explorative strategy leads to the creation of more public value. It is still difficult for authorities, however, to apply such a strategy. Link: Van Buuren et al. (2019). Towards integrated water and energy works in the Netherlands.

Warsen, R., Klijn, E.H. & Koppenjan, J. (2019). Mix and Match: How contractual and relational conditions are combined in successful Public-Private Partnerships. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (online first). Link: Warsen et al., (2019). Mix and match: how contractual and relational conditions are combined in successful public-private partnerships.


Nederhand, J., Van der Steen., M. & Van Twist, M. (2018). Boundary-spanning strategies for aligning institutional logics: a typology. Local Government studies (online first). Link: Nederhand et al. (2018). Boundary-spanning Strategies for aligning institutional logics.

Koppenjan, J., Klijn, E.H., Warsen, R. & Nederhand, J. (2018). Slimme sturing van publiek-private samenwerking bij publieke infrastructuur. Bestuurskunde. (Dutch only).

Warsen, R., Nederhand, J., Klijn, E.H., Grotenbreg, S. & Koppenjan, J. (2018). What makes public-private partnerships work? Survey research into the outcomes and the quality of cooperation in PPPs. Public Management Review (online first). Public–private partnerships (PPPs) are often regarded as the solution for time and budget overruns in large infrastructural projects, but not all are successful. This raises the question of what really makes PPPs work. Focusing on the role of relational aspects, this article examines the degree to which trust and managerial activities correlate to the perceived performance and cooperation process in PPP projects. Link: Warsen et al. (2018). What makes PPPs work?

Klijn, E.H. & Koppenjan, J. (2018).  De invloed van het contract op de prestaties van publiek-private samenwerkingsprojecten. Gepubliceerd in: Maurits Sanders (red.) (2018). Publiek-private samenwerking. Kunst van het evenwicht. Den Haag: Boombestuurskunde, blz. 75-90. PDF version (only in Dutch):  De invloed van het contract op de prestaties van PPS-projecten

Benítez-Ávila, C., Hartmann, A., Dewulf, G., & Henseler, J. (2018). Interplay of relational and contractual governance in public-private partnerships: The mediating role of relational norms, trust and partners’ contribution. International journal of project management, 36(3), 429-443. Link: Interplay of relational and contractual governance in PPPs


Grotenbreg, S. & Altamirano, M. (2017). Government facilitation of external initiatives: how Dutch water authorities cope with value dilemmas. International Journal of Water Resources Development (online first). This article discusses private initiatives in the water sector, and focuses on the dilemma governments face when they try to facilitate these initiatives, but maintain bureaucratic values at the same time. Link: Government facilitation of external initiatives. PDF version: Grotenbreg & Altamirano (2017) Government facilitation of external initiatives.

Koppenjan, J.F.M. & De Jong, M. (2017). The introduction of public-private partnerships in the Netherlands as a case of institutional bricolage: The evolution of an Anglo-Saxon transplant in a Rhineland context. Public Administration (online first). This article reconstructs how the Anglo-Saxon inspired PPP practice is incorporated into the traditional ‘Rhinelandic’ practice of infrastructure management in the Netherlands. Early view link: PPP in the Netherlands as a case of institutional bricolage.

Nederhand, J. & Van Meerkerk, I. (2017). Activating citizens in Dutch care reforms: framing new co-production roles and competences for citizens and professionals. Policy and Politics (online first). Politicians state that in order to keep care provision affordable, accessible and in line with societal demands, responsibilities should be shifted ‘back to society. The activation of citizens has considerable implications for the roles, competences and responsibilities of care professionals. In fact, government is calling for a new public service ethos, which involves activating, partnering, and supporting citizen action. Link: Activating citizens in Dutch care reforms. PDF version: Nederhand & van Meerkerk (2017). Activating citizens in Dutch care reforms.

Nederhand, J. & Klijn, E.H. (2017). Stakeholder involvement in public-private partnerships: its influence on the innovative character of projects and on project performance. Administration & Society (online first). Central in this paper is the question to what degree stakeholders, like citizens and societal groups, are involved in PPP projects, and to what degree their involvement affects the performance and the level of innovation of these projects. Online version:

Grotenbreg, S. & Buuren, van, A. (2017). Facilitation as a Governance Strategy: Unravelling Governments’ Facilitation Frames. Sustainability, vol. 9 (160). This article presents research into the ‘framing’ by the government of so-called integrated energy & waterworks. Two Dutch cases, Tidal Power Plant Brouwersdam and the New Afsluitdijk, are analysed. The articles focuses on the question how the government uses framing to legitimates the preferred role distribution. PDF version: Grotenbreg & Van Buuren (2017). Facilitation as a Governance Strategy.


Klijn, E.H. & Koppenjan, J.F.M. (2016). The impact of contract characteristics on the performance of public-private partnerships (PPPs). Public Money and Management, vol. 36 (6). Link:

Grotenbreg, S. & Buuren, van, A. (2016). Realizing innovative public waterworks: Aligning administrative capacities in collaborative innovation processes. Journal of Cleaner Production (online first) This article studies how the government and the market sector cooperate in order to realize the so-called ‘Energy dikes’. Four Dutch cases are analyzed, including the new Afsluitdijk, tidal power station Brouwersdam, turbines in the Oosterscheldekering and Tidal Test Centre Grevelingendam. Usually these projects are private initiatives financed in a number of ways by the government. Within these project public and private actors cooperate in a special way. PDF version: Grotenbreg & van Buuren, 2016. Realising innovative public waterworks.

Kort, M., Verweij, S. & Klijn, E.H. (2016). In Search for Effective Public-Private Partnerships: An assessment of the impact of organizational form and managerial strategies in urban regeneration partnerships using FsQCA. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. Doi: 10.1177/0263774X15614674. There is a lot of discussion in the public private partnership literature and practice about what really makes PPP’s work and most effective. In a QCA analysis using data about urban renewal companies in The Netherlands the authors test which conditions may contribute to a good performance of these companies. Analysis showed that organizational arrangements on themselves are not enough to produce good performance. However, the combination of management and organizational conditions does matter to achieve good outcomes in such urban renewal companies. PDF version: Kort, Verweij & Klijn (2016). In search for effective Public-Private Partnerships.

Previous publications


Bovaird, T. & Klijn, E.H. (2015). Partnership working in the public domain. In: T. Bovaird and E. Loeffler (eds.) Public management and governance. London: Routledge

Buiten, van, M. & Hartmann, A. (2015). Asset Management Perspective on the Duration of Public-Private Partnership Contracts: Cost-Control Trade-off? Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 141(3).


Matos Castano, J., Dewulf, G.P.M.R. & Mahalingam, A. (2014). Unpacking the path-dependent process of institutional change for PPPs. Australian journal of public administration, 73(1), 47-66.


Dewulf, G., Blanken, A. & Bult-Spiering, W.D. (2012). Strategic Issues in Public-Private Partnerships. Second Edition. Oxford: Wiley.

Kort, M. & Klijn, E.H. (2013). Public Private partnerships in Urban Regeneration: democratic legitimacy and its relation with trust and outcomes. Local Government Studies, 39(1), 89-106.


Klijn, E.H. Kort, M. & Twist, van, M.J.W. (2012). Effective public–private partnerships: managerial flow or organizational form? Singapore Management review, 34(2S), 23-29.


Kort, M. & Klijn, E.H. (2011). Public Private partnerships in Urban renewal: organizational form or managerial capacity? Public Administration Review, 71(4), 618-626.

Steijn, B., Klijn, E.H. & Edelenbos, J. (2011). Public Private Partnerships: added value by organizational form or management? Public Administration, 89(4), 1235-1252.


Blanken, A. & Dewulf, G.P.M.R. (2010). PPPs in health: static of dynamic? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 69(S1), S35-47.

Klijn, E.H. (2010). Public Private Partnerships: deciphering meaning, message and phenomenon. In: G. Hodge, C. Greve and A. Boardman (eds). International Handbook of PPP (pp. 68-80). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.


Edelenbos, J. & Klijn, E.H. (2009). Project versus process management in public private partnerships: relation between management style and outcomes. International Journal of Public Management, 12 (3), 310-331.

Klijn, E.H. (2009). Public Private Partnerships in The Netherlands: policy, projects and lessons. Economic Affairs, 29(1), 26-32.


Klijn, E.H., Edelenbos, J., Kort, M. & Twist, van, M.J.W. (2008). Facing Management Dilemmas; an Analysis of managerial choices in 18 complex environmental Public Private Partnership projects. International review of  Administrative science, 74(2), 251-278.

Koppenjan, J.F.M. (2008). Public-Private Partnership and Mega-Projects. In: B. Flyvbjerg, H. Priemus, B.van Wee (eds). Development and Management of Large Infrastructure projects (pp. 189-212). Cheltenham (UK), Northampton (Mass.USA): Edward Elgar. PDF version: Koppenjan, 2008. Public-Private Partnership and Mega-Projects (in Flyvbjerg, Priemus & van Wee).


Klijn, E.H., Edelenbos, J. & Hughes, M. (2007). Public Private Partnerships: a two headed reform; a comparison of PPP in England and The Netherlands. In: C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel & V. Homburg (eds.). New Public Management In Europe: Adaptation And Alternatives (71-89). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. (Isbn: 0-230-00693-0).